EGY Verbs 2

adapted from http://arabic.desert-sky.net/g_conj.html

PATTERNS (CC= verb root consonants)

PRESENT

aCC

nCC

tCC/i

tCCu

i/tCC

iCCu


PAST

CCt

CCna

CCt/ti

CCtu

CC/it

CCu


Sound verbs

don’t have a U or I – و or ي as one of the three root letters

Regular sound verbs

NOTE UNWRITTEN VOWELS ONLY SHOWN FOR I (first person) FORM

I at the start (or 2nd pos. after b, h, n, s in a verb) always takes the sound YI

a before d at the start of a verb is pronounced I

fus’ha dictionary: kataba,u (CC=ktb)

write aktib

I

tktb/i

you

i/tktb

he/she

nktb

we

tktbu

you pl

iktbu

they

 

wrote katabt

I

ktbt/ti

you m/f

ktb/it

he/she

ktbna

we

ktbtu

you pl

ktbu

they

irregular sound verbs:

germinate/doubled (2nd & 3rd consonants the same)

  • دقّ daq(q)a – يدقّ yadiq(q)u (to knock)
  • ردّ rad(d)a – يردّ yarud(d)u (to reply)

fus’ha dictionary: rada,u

reply arud

I

trd/i

you

i/trd

he/she

nrd

we

trdu

you pl

irdu

they

 

replied radit

I

rdt/i

you m/f

rd/it

he/she

rdna

we

rdtu

you pl

rdu

they

hamzated (contain hamza  ء)

بدأ badáa – يبدأ iabdáu (to begin)

fus’ha dictionary: akala,u

eat ákul

I

kul/tkli

you

i/tákl

he/she

kl

we

tklu

you pl

iklu

they

 

ate akalt

I

klt/i

you m/f

akal/it

he/she

(kal also used for akal) klna

we

kltu

you pl

klu

they

fus’ha dictionary: saála,u

ask asál

I

tsál/i

you

i/tsál

he/she

nsál

we

tsálu

you pl

isálu

they

 

asked saált

I

sált/i

you m/f

sál/it

he/she

sálna

we

sáltu

you pl

sálu

they

fus’ha dictionary: qaa,u

read aqrá

I

tqrá/i

you

i/tqrá

he/she

nqrá

we

tqru

you pl

iqru

they

 

read (past) qarit

I

qarit/i

you m/f

qará/it

he/she

qarina

we

qaritu

you pl

qaru

they

Weak Verbs
A verb is “weak” if one of the letters from the verb’s three root letters is u a i – ا, و, or ي

Assimilated Weak verbs – first vowel is long (usually u)

وضع uađo – يضع iađo (to put)

fus’ha dictionary: ucila,icilu

arrive aucil

I

tucil/i

you

i/tucil

he/she

nucil

we

tucilu

you pl

iucilu

they

 

arrived ucil-t

I

ucil-t/i

you m/f

ucil-/t

he/she

ucil-na

we

ucil-tu

you pl

ucil-u

they

Hollow weak verbs – thesecond radical is either a و (as with قال – يقول) or ي (as with باع – يبيع); in the perfect, the و or ي is replaced by an alif.

    • باع bao – يبيع ibio (to sell)
    • عاد oada – يعود ioudu (to return)

fus’ha dictionary: ƶara,u (iƶuru)

visit aƶur

I

tƶur/i

you

i/tƶur

he/she

nƶur

we

tƶuru

you pl

iƶuru

they

 

visited ƶurt

I

ƶurt/i

you m/f

ƶar/it

he/she

ƶurna

we

ƶurtu

you pl

ƶaru

they

Defective weak verbs – the final vowel is either a و or ي. There are three types of defective verbs:

  • Verbs with a و as the last root letter (ex. بدا – يبدو bada – iabdu, “to seem, appear”)
  • Verbs with a ي as the last root letter and a kasra (short “i”) as the middle vowel in the past/perfect tense, of the form “faoia – iafoa” (ex. نسى – ينسى nasia – iansa, “to forget”)
  • Verbs with a ي as the last root letter and a fatha (short “a”) as the middle vowel in the past/perfect tense, of the form “faoa – iafoi” (ex. جرى – يجري gara – igri, “to run”)
  • Note that in Cairene Arabic, verbs of the type “faoal” are often pronounced differently from standard Arabic in the past tense. While standard pronunciation would be “faoal,” Cairene pronunciation would be “fioil.” So “gara” becomes “giri.”

بدا bada – يبدو iabdu (to appear, seem)

complain jaka – ijki (fus’ha iajku)

invade Gaƶa – iGƶi (iaGƶu)

invite/pray – daoa – idoi (iadou)

survive nigi -ingi  (naga – iangu)

fus’ha dictionary: raga,u

beg argu

I

trgu/i

you

i/trgu

he/she

nrgu

we

trgu

you pl

irgu

they

 

begged ragit

I

rgit/i

you m/f

rga/it

he/she

rgina

we

rgitu

you pl

rgiu

they

fus’ha dictionary: nasia,iansa – type faoia – iafoa

forget ansa

I

tnsa/i

you

i/tnsa

he/she

nnsa

we

tnsu

you pl

insu

they

 

forgot nsit

I

(neg) mans-itj

nsit/i

you m/f

mans-itj/ij

nsi/it

he/she

manas-aj/atj

or manisi-itj

nsina

we

mans-inaj

nsitu

you pl

mans-ituj

nisyu

they

manisi-uj

miji/imji

went mjit

I

(neg) mamj-itj

mjit/i

you m/f

mamj-itj/ij

mji/it

he/she

mamjij/

mamiji-itj

mjina

we

mamj-inaj

mjitu

you pl

mamj-ituj

mjiu

they

mamiji-uj

omal /ioml

do
will do
a-oml

I

ha-omel

toml/i

you m/f

ha—

i/toml

he/she

ha—

noml

we

ha—

toml-u

you pl

ha—

ioml-u

they

ha—

 

am doing
am not doing
ba-omel

I

ma—j

bt-oml/i

you m/f

ma—j/ij

bi/t-oml

he/she

ma—j

bini-omel

we

ma—j

bt-oml-u

you pl

ma—tuj

bi-oml-u

they

ma—uj

 

did/made
didn’t
omalt

I

ma—tj

omalt/i

you m/f

ma–-tj/ij

omal/lit

he/she

ma—j/-mlitj

omalna

we

ma—naaj

omaltu

you pl

ma—tuj

omalu

they

ma—uj

fus’ha dictionary: gara,igri – type faoa – iafoi

run agri

I

tgri

you

i/tgri

he/she

ngri

we

tgru

you pl

yigru

they

 

ran girit

I

grit/i

you m/f

gri/it

he/she

grina

we

gritu

you pl

griu

they

from original http://arabic.desert-sky.net/g_conj.html

 

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